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Friday, May 10, 2013

HIDDEN CHEROKEES OF TENNESSEE: The Story of the Nunley, Hobbs, Stoner, Miller, Smartt, Northcutt, and possibly Wilson, Orr, Earnheart, Powe, and Wren Families.


HIDDEN CHEROKEES OF TENNESSEE – The Story of the Nunley, Hobbs, Stoner, Miller, Smartt, Northcutt, and possibly Wilson, Orr, Earnheart, Powe and/or Wren Families.

Male Adventurers in Early Virginia The earliest settlers of the Virginia Colony were predominantly male adventurers seeking wealth and land (the two being interchangeable).  The two most direct avenues to profits were trading with the Indians and development of land grants.  For those with wealth and influence, large land grants made the second course feasible.  For those without these assets, the Indian trade offered the greatest opportunity. 
Europeans aspiring to profits from trading quickly learned that marriage to Native American women was advantageous in negotiations. Given the paucity of white women in 17th century southern colonies, immigrants frequently married Native American women and formed allegiances with their wives’ families, clans, and tribes.  Intermarriage between European men and Native American women remained common through the 17th and 18th centuries.  While these early marriages were apparently considered valid and binding in both Indian and European cultures, in later years, European men were often polygamous.  They married and lived with Native American wives in tribal areas, while maintaining white wives in European settlements.  Other European men practiced serial marriage, marrying a Native American woman in their youth, and raising a family with her; and then “settling down” in their later years with a white wife, and raising a white family.  To further complicate this picture, some European men had more than one Native American wife.

Cultural Clash --  Patriarchal Europeans and Matriarchal Native Americans  -- From the beginning, the rigidly patriarchal Europeans had difficulty understanding the matriarchal culture of many Native American tribes, including the Cherokee.  Among the Cherokee, children belonged to their Mother and to their Mother’s Clan.  Property belonged to the Clan, and was controlled by the women.  Marriages between children of the same maternal clan were forbidden, and the leading women of each clan approved marriages.  Otherwise, Cherokee women were free to choose their lovers, to marry, and even to dissolve their marriages. 
Maternal Uncles (brothers of the Mother and members of her Clan) were charged with the education of their sisters’ sons.  Since fathers were not members of the same clan, a Father’s care and influence was supplemented or even replaced by that of the Mother’s brothers (members of the children’s Clan).   Orphaned Cherokee children were raised by their Clan, typically by their mothers’ sisters or aunts.
This pattern was in direct contrast to the European pattern in which children belonged to fathers, who selected husbands for their daughters.  Women were subject to their fathers before marriage and to their husbands after marriage.  Even as widows, they could not own or administer property in their own right, but were assigned male “guardians” to direct their affairs.  Similarly, orphans and the children of widows were assigned male guardians. 
Compared to European women, Native American women enjoyed great autonomy, freedom of choice, and financial security.  Most European men who married Cherokee women lived with the Cherokees or on farms established on Cherokee lands.  European men found that divorce was far easier among the Cherokee, and that polygamy was more widely accepted.  However, European husbands of Cherokee women were often subjected to rough jokes because of their wives’ independence and autonomy. 
 In the vast majority of cases, children of mixed European/Native American heritage were raised by their Mothers in Cherokee traditions.  There are documented stories of mixed Cherokee/European children, whose upbringing included exposure to European culture, including education and religion.  However, even in these cases, most individuals eventually returned to their Native American families and villages.
Patronymics:  One European cultural practice was preserved -- the custom of giving the Father’s last name to the children.  For a variety of reasons, Fathers’ names were given to children and passed down through the subsequent generations.
Prejudice: In the early 17th century, prejudices against mixed marriages and children of mixed heritage were relatively minimal; however, as conflict increased between Indians and whites, so did hatred and resentment.  By the 18th Century European prejudice against intermarriage and mixed race children was pronounced.  In contrast, the Cherokees were extremely tolerant of mixed heritage, and included many individuals of mixed European and mixed African heritage among their number.   It is only in recent times that Cherokees have begun to identify members of the tribe according to the purity of their Native American descent.

Challenges to Genealogical research -- Tracing the descendants of European men and their Native American wives is complicated (https://www.familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Indians_of_Tennessee) .  Most written records are of European origin, and frequently do not contain information on marriages between Europeans and Native Americans.  While the names of children born to these alliances are often listed, the names of Native American wives and mothers are frequently not recorded.  In fact, a European wife, whose marriage was recorded, is often erroneously listed as the Mother of all the children of her husband (including the children born to his Native American wife or wives).  Careful consideration of birth and marriage dates often reveals evidence of these confusions.
            Conflict between European settlers and the Cherokee increased as settlers encroached on Cherokee lands, especially after the French and Indian (Seven Years) War.  As the 19th Century progressed, penalties associated with being identified as Native American increased dramatically.  Many Cherokee (especially those of mixed heritage) went to great lengths to disguise and hide their Native American roots.  Native American heritage became a deep, dark “family secret” hidden from outsiders and even from younger family members.  Rediscovering Native American roots after several generations of hiding is especially challenging.  Groups of Cherokee who hid their heritage are sometimes referred to as “Hidden Cherokee.”
           
Nunley, Hobbs, Stoner, Miller, Smartt, Northcutt, and possibly Wilson, Orr, Earnheart, Powe and/or Wren Families. – For the reasons discussed above, the tracing of our Cherokee Families is challenging, and many questions remain unresolved.  However, I am sharing this information in the interest of encouraging others to read, critique, research, and help us correct errors and expand our understanding.  This research began with the Nunley and Hobbs families (maternal grandparents of my husband Charles Freeman) and progressed backwards in time to the Stoner, Miller, Smartt, and Northcutt families of Tennessee.   Moving further back in time and to costal settlements in Virginia and North Carolina, we encountered the Wilson, Orr, Earneart, Powe, and Wren Families.  Evidence of the Native American roots for these five families is less clear than for those researched in Tennessee.  However, by the time these families intermarried, it is almost certain they were mixed race families, raised in the Cherokee culture.  
The stories of these families begin in early 17th century Virginia and lead through modern-day North Carolina to the Tennessee counties of Grundy, Warren, and Coffee (formed in part from White County).   The early stories are remarkably similar – European men married Cherokee wives and fathered mixed race children who were raised in the Cherokee heritage of their Mothers.  These European/Native American children intermarried and participated in the unfolding history of the Cherokee people. 
           
THE WARS --  Native American tribes were drawn into European conflicts.  The Cherokees did not present a united front in their response to European conflicts.  Some Cherokee leaders espoused peace and resisted any participation in White men’s wars.  Others established ties with neighboring colonial settlers and sided with them against the French and then the British.  Still others opposed the loss of traditional Cherokee lands.  They allied themselves with the French and then with the British in opposition to the colonists.
            This last group of Cherokee sided with the French in the French and Indian Wars because they saw the English settlers as land hungry.  The Anglo-Cherokee War (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Cherokee_War#War), considered part of the Seven Years War, represents the beginning of the conflict between the Cherokee and the colonists.  The Chickamauga Wars (1777-1794 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chickamauga_Wars ) represent almost 20 years of raids, campaigns, ambushes and full-scale battles between the British settlers and the resistant Cherokees.  This period represents the longest continuous Native American resistance to European intrusion.  In the Chickamauga Wars, the resisting Cherokees were led by the famous war chief, Dragging Canoe (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dragging_Canoe).  As nearly as we can establish, our direct ancestors were all followers of Dragging Canoe and are included among the Chickamauga Cherokee (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chickamauga_Cherokee).    Our Cherokee families[1] moved with Dragging Canoe and his followers across the mountains, and were subsequently called Chikamauga or the Over-Hill Indian Nation (http://www.overhillcherokee.com/index2.htm; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overhill_Cherokee).  With the death of Dragging Canoe and the destruction of Nickajack ( 1794, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nickajack_Expedition  ) Cherokee resistance was crushed. 
            HIDDEN CHEROKEES – Many of the surviving Chickamauga (Over-hill Cherokees) literally hid in the valleys (coves), mountains, and caves of Tennessee.  Our families hid in what are now the counties of Grundy, Warren, and Coffee (portions of which were carved from the original White County).  As the earliest settlers, these families gave their names to numerous geographical sites (i.e. Nunley Mountain, Nunley Cove, Nunley Cave, Hobbs Hill, Northcutt Cove, Smartt Mountain, etc.). 
After the Indian Removal Act of 1830 (http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2959.html,  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Removal_Act_of_1830), the survival of these Cherokees required denial of their heritage.  As passed down by the Nunleys, the members of their family who “looked white” took land in their names, while their relatives who “looked Indian” hid in the caverns in the mountains.  When Cherokees were rounded up by U.S. soldiers and forced into concentration camps to await deportation, their “Hidden” Cherokee relatives and friends took in their children to protect the little ones from deportation.   In our research we were at first puzzled by intermarriages that appeared incestuous, until we understood that many of the couples in these marriages were not related by “blood” but by “adoption.”  Children saved from the Trail of Tears (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trail_of_Tears ) were “adopted” by Hidden Cherokee relatives and friends.  As adults they married members of their “adopted” families, creating the superficial appearance of incest.

NICKAJACK AND THE CIVIL WAR – The story of Nickajack (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nickajack ) illustrates the history of our family during the Civil War.  Many of the Hidden Cherokees resisted involvement in a conflict they considered a White Man’s War.  Others, like the inhabitants of the Nickajack area resisted the secession of Alabama and Tennessee and voted to remain part of the Union.  Some members of our Cherokee families fought for the Union, others for the Confederacy, and still others refused to take up arms in either cause. 
Enmity toward representatives of the U.S. Government appears to have been common among the Hidden Cherokee.  Unpopular laws, especially those related to taxes were regularly ignored.  Among some Tennessee families, their war with the Revenuers was just an extension of earlier resistance to the encroachments of European settlers.

            HIDDEN CHEROKEES AND THE CHEROKEE NATIONS – The “Hidden Cherokees” of Tennessee were never part of either the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherokee_Nation ) or of the Eastern Band of the Cherokee Nation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Band_of_Cherokee_Indians), but they had close relatives in both groups.  There is evidence that our Hidden Cherokees families maintained lines of communication with their relatives in the Nations.  Most persuasively, when our Nunley and Hobbs families migrated out of Tennessee in the early 20th Century, they moved to Northeast Texas where Cherokee relatives from Oklahoma settled after the Civil War.  
Family names offer additional evidence of kinship.  The family names derived from our Tennessee research appear on lists for both the Eastern Cherokee Band and the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma.  The Hidden Cherokees of Tennessee (Chickamauga or Over-Hill Cherokee) resisted to the bitter end, and can rightfully claim that they never surrendered.  However, these same Hidden Cherokee survived by denying their heritage and in so doing lost much of their culture.  It is a paradox that those who resisted and refused to surrender eventually lost much of their traditional culture, while those who compromised and surrendered were able to preserve their heritage.  




[1] Not all members of these families were part of the resistance.  Some of their relatives remained in North Carolina.  Thus, some of these family names are still present in the Eastern Cherokee Nation.

30 comments:

  1. Frances, I would like to talk to you about the Hobbs family. Our Hobbs family never showed on the Census until 1850 which is when they lived in Kentucky. The birth place of John Hobbs and Wilmouth Owens accordingly to the Census 1850, was in TN born between 1794 - 1798. Our families have completed DNA tests and have not matched to any of the known Hobbs family lines or at least the ones that have completed DNA test which include the most known. We have never been able to find the parent names for John, though we found information on how the Owens family migrated from North Carolina, and assuming if Wilmouth was born in TN, some point in TN, then to Rockcastle County, Ky. I speculate that the Owens & Hobbs families and maybe others migrated together. I wondered what all information you have available. Feel free to email me, bradl.hobbs@gmail.com

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    1. Dear Brad, I am doubly interested in Hobbs ancestry. Not only was my husband's grandmother a Hobbs, but my great-grandmother was a Hobbs (Nancy). Her father Spencer Hobbs came to Texas when it still belonged to Mexico, and was an early Texas Ranger. I have not been able to find appropriate documentation, but believe he is the son or grandson of William Zion Hobbs who married Nancy Spencer. (Note he named his only child "Nancy") I believe, but cannot prove that there were both Native American and White children of this Hobbs line. This was at a time when Native American Heritage meant pure discrimination. I believe that many of our difficulties tracing their background is made difficult by racial and cultural differences. Have you read, Donald Yates' book, "Old World Cherokee Roots of the Cherokee: How DNA, Ancient Alphabets and Religion Explain the Origins of America's Largest Indian Nation?" I am reading, but don't feel adequate to evaluate the theories.

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  2. Frances, thank you for posting this My husband's grandfather is Luther Nunley. All the stories he read are the ones he grew up hearing. He was extremely excited to learn more of the history of his family. We now live in central texas and try to attend the reunions held in Logansport every year. If possible could you contact us at Daiuy5@aol.com to He'd love to talk to another cousin. Thanks (Peggi)

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  3. Frances if you could plase contact me it would be great. My name is Stacy Hobbs, Son of Jonah Hobbs, Son of Dock Albert Hobbs, Son of Harris Hobbs, The son of Richard Hobbs Jr. The Son of Christopher Hobbs, the Son of Richard Hobbs Sr. The son of Ezekiel Hobbs. I grew up and live where you are writing about. My Great Grand Father Harris Hobbs was the last to live on Stoner Mountain. I heard tales of us being realted to the Indians, but I have never found any concrete Evidence. I would love to see what you have on your Husband. My email is jsdshobbs@charter.net

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  4. I'm currently researching my Chamness (Quaker) family and have seen that one of the males had two wives. His first wife was Sarah "Sally" Berry. Someone just emailed me and said she was of Indian (Cherokee) blood, but I've found NO documentation of this...sigh...I'll keep looking. Very interesting article!
    Cheryl Ann

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  5. Frances - this is very interesting. I am a direct decedent of Nicholas Wren, one of the first Wrens who arrived in James City (Citty) VA in 1652. All my life I've been told I have Cherokee ancestry and I was disappointed when I had my DNA done with no trace of being Native American, although I understand that there's a good chance it won't show up because of the low percentage.. Any information you have on the early Wren's would be a tremendous help. Please contact me at jwren1@sc.rr.com. Thank you so much. Jim Wren.

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    1. Upload your raw DNA results from Ancestry.com to gedmatch.com. Use the Dodecard World9 Admixture test which is specifically designed to detect NA ancestry. It shouldn't be taken as gospel. Most Native nations in the US will not submit their DNA to legal and political reasons. And most Native Americans east of the Mississippi River are mixed blood. So it would be pointless for them to submit DNA.

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  6. My great great grandparents were Wilson's. My grandmother always called us Virginia Indians. None of the Virginia tribes have the surname "Wilson", but I always find this surname amongst the Cherokee. So I am trying to find out if my ancestors were part of the Cherokee Nation. By 1860 the Wilson's were living on Staten Island,NY. Any info on this name would be great. My husband is Sioux and I now live in Montana. Thank You for any help on my family name. Jeanne Domek Yellow Robe. I can be reached at jeannedomekyellowrobe@yahoo.com

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  7. Francis,
    Now I know why I have become so confused.
    I have been trying to use patriarchal Ydna to track my Taylor roots.
    Two Taylor brothers (Andrew and David) came from Orange, Va. into what was indian territory (East Tenn.) and married Bigbe sisters (part cherokee).
    The location became known as "Taylor's Place" where of course a spring was located ("Taylor's Spring") and later the location of Cleveland, Bradley county Tenn.
    I have a match at 67markers Ydna with possible descendents of these Taylors.

    My Great G. father born 1834 died in California 1873 and nothing is known about him other than 1870 census info and what his stone and a couple of short obits say.
    I'm 72 and my father would never tell me anything of his heritage.
    I suspect it was as you say, " a family secret."
    There is a 1846 document;(Memorial of Andrew Taylor") available in the library of congress related to the cherokee treaty of 1835 which may interest you.
    Send me your email and I'll attach a copy of it to send you.

    Part of the document states: "I certify, that on the 16th day of February, 1837, Andrew Taylor, a white man, having Cherokee rights, was recommended by the committee to the United States Commissioners as capable of becoming a citizen of the Unites States, and that his name stands on the records of the committee."

    I knew Andrew and David Taylor were born in Orange, Va. and were citizens by birth.
    Russ Taylor
    rwtjmt@sbcglobal.net

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  8. I am also a Nunley,my fathers name is Paul as is his father, we are right outside of Chicago,and had never heard of anyone having my last name till recently.would love to learn more!!!

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  9. I am also a Nunley,my fathers name is Paul as is his father, we are right outside of Chicago,and had never heard of anyone having my last name till recently.would love to learn more!!!

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  10. Are we able to get an Indian Card? My great grandfather was William Nunley, brother of Jesse Nunley.

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    1. My name is Frances Barnes Parker. My Grandfather was the son of Lucy Nunley and her father was Jesse Nunley. She was from Warren co. tn dob 11/1/1860 and died in grundy co,tn in 1950. It's very hard to find anything on the Cherokee part of our family. Have you found anything I can use?

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    2. Im Rebekkah Nunley, descendant of william nunley. I have been tracing my ancestry, got all the way to william nunley and jean miller. Ive read that they lived in Nunley mnt, and buried in the Nunley cemetery. I would like to know how I can email you or you email me at phelpsmom2@hotmail.com. Im trying to get more info on this if you have it please.

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    3. Im Rebekkah Nunley, descendant of william nunley. I have been tracing my ancestry, got all the way to william nunley and jean miller. Ive read that they lived in Nunley mnt, and buried in the Nunley cemetery. I would like to know how I can email you or you email me at phelpsmom2@hotmail.com. Im trying to get more info on this if you have it please.

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  11. There are now two Nunley Family Pages on Face Book, and a big Nunley family reunion is planned for this summer. Check these out.

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    1. where on facebook? My great grandfather was married to Lucy nunley. His last name was Barnes.

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  12. My last name is Hobbs so I wonder if I am of any relation at all.

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  13. Family oral history has the Orr family (James Orr, patriarch) with native American blood. I am most intested in learning more about the Orr's, particularly those who married into the Means family (Tennessee, Arkansas).

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  14. It was not the final treaty per the reason.Tennessee lands in these counties were treatied away in 1805,1806.At this point the Cherokees living there were subjects of the State and U.S.I'm Vickers from e.Tennessee,Warren ,co.William Vickers and family were on the 1820 U.S. census.The wife was listed as non taxed Indian.

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  15. It was not the final treaty per the reason.Tennessee lands in these counties were treatied away in 1805,1806.At this point the Cherokees living there were subjects of the State and U.S.I'm Vickers from e.Tennessee,Warren ,co.William Vickers and family were on the 1820 U.S. census.The wife was listed as non taxed Indian.

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  17. I'm researching William Adams who supposedly arrived near present-day Pulaski and Rockcastle Counties, KY around 1780 from North Carolina. He had a daughter named Charity who was born in 1783 in that area. His wife is unknown. I believe she was a full-blooded Cherokee. There are several people who have the wrong woman on Ancestry as Charity's mother who they claim is Mary M. Gooden/Gooding. She had a son named David born in 1783. Their family never set foot in KY. I also have an ancestor named Mary Poulter born in 1780 in KY. She had a son named William Loyd born in 1798 in Jefferson County, KY. Probably I won't find any more info on them, but I'm keeping the faith that I will.

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  18. I would like to get more info if available on william nunley. I am a great gran of him. Where can I get more info about Nunley mountaim and the bothers who lived there with their wives? Trying to trace my ancestry, Please email me. Thank you
    phelpsmom2@hotmail.com

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  19. I would like to get more info if available on william nunley. I am a great gran of him. Where can I get more info about Nunley mountaim and the bothers who lived there with their wives? Trying to trace my ancestry, Please email me. Thank you
    phelpsmom2@hotmail.com

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  20. I have been on the Cherokee Indian Geneology Just because we say we are of Cherokee heritage doesn't mean there is proof. I was told that everybody in Tennessee thinks they are Cherokee and Cherokees weren't from Tennessee. I have found a lot of snobbery from these people. Without families from generations past keeping paperwork we will never know.

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  21. My wife's grandfather said that his mother was full-blooded Cherokee 'princess' and that he was adopted and raised by the Looney family, probably in Sullivan Co. Tenn. She would be a 'hidden Cherokee' living in the hills and probably related to the Looneys who were a mixed Cherokkee/Settler family who raised as one of their own to protect him. Any knowledge about this family please email sojmed@gmail.com

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  22. I am definitely someone kin to the H
    obbs/Nunley you are talking about. I've attached a portion of what I have on Hobbs Nunley's. My grandmother was Adora Hobbs (Dora). Please contact me at bettye840@gmail.com. I'm VERY anxious to talk with u.
    12. Abraham Hobbs, born 1800. He was the son of 24. Ezekiel Hobbs and 25. Nancy Northcutt. He married 13. Elizabeth Nunley.
    13. Elizabeth Nunley

    Children of Abraham Hobbs and Elizabeth Nunley are:]
    i. Archibald Hobbs
    ii. Adeline Hobbs
    iii. Christopher Hobbs
    iv. Martha Hobbs, born 1823.
    6 v. Nelson B. Hobbs, born Jan 1829 in Grundy Co., TN; married Sarah Jane Nunley 13 Jan 1857.
    vi. Wesley Hobbs, born 1835 in Grundy Co., TN; married (1) Lucinda Lowe; born 1849; died 1915 in Orme, Marion Co., TN; married (2) Luzanna Fults 17 May 1858 in Warren Co., TN; born 1835 in Tennessee.

    More About Wesley Hobbs and Luzanna Fults:
    Marriage: 17 May 1858, Warren Co., TN

    vii. Abraham Hobbs, born 1837 in Grundy Co., TN; married Sarah Jane Smartt; born Abt. 1848 in Grundy Co., TN.
    viii. Alexander Hobbs, born 1837 in Grundy Co., TN.
    ix. Frankie Hobbs, born 1839 in Grundy Co., TN.
    x. James Hobbs, born 1840 in Grundy Co., TN.
    xi. William Riley Hobbs, born 1844 in Grundy Co., TN; married Eveline Hobbs 05 Jul 1868 in Grundy Co., TN; born 1848 in Grundy Co., TN.

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